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" The primary objective of copyright is not to reward the labor of authors, but '[t]o promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts.' To this end, copyright assures authors the right to their original expression, but encourages others to build freely upon the ideas and information conveyed by a work. This result is neither unfair nor unfortunate. It is the means by which copyright advances the progress of science and art."
Justice Sandra Day O'Connor
(Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co., 499 US 340, 349(1991)

This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of China today, and the changes in China that are affecting such issues as the environment, politics, human rights, economic development, "democracy", scientific advancements, social change, popular culture, and many other areas. When we include the full text of an article originally posted on the Internet rather than a simple link, it is because links frequently go "bad", that is the links change over time or the web page is removed after a brief period. We believe this constitutes a "fair use" of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the USA Copyright Law (see below). In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, this material is distributed on this web site without profit to those who have expressed a prior general interest in receiving similar information for research and education purposes. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond "fair use", you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. See also our Disclaimers. Sinomania! freely grants permission to reprint its materials but asks for a credit citation. Sinomania! does not give permission for credit citation of other sources.

Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107
Copyright & Fair Use: Congress has identified four nonexclusive factors as "especially relevant" in determining fair use. Id. The Copyright Act provides: The fair use of a copyrighted work . . . for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include - (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. 17 U.S.C. @ 107.
This information is provided as a public service.Reas our Fair Use Statement and disclaimers.
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